CEREMONIAL OBJECTS


CEREMONIAL OBJECTS
Oil lamp, provenance unknown, 5th6th century C.E. Bronze, 10.5 9.5 17.0 cm. 89.1141. Schloessinger collection, Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, exhibited at The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Oil lamp, provenance unknown, 5th–6th century C.E. Bronze, 10.5 × 9.5 × 17.0 cm. 89.114/1. Schloessinger collection, Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, exhibited at The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by David Harris.   THE PRODUCTION OF CEREMONIAL OBJECTS WAS A MAJOR VENUE THROUGH WHICH JEWS EXPRESSED THEIR ARTISTIC ABILITIES, DESPITE THE PARTIAL PROHIBITION AGAINST SCULPTURE. THE FOCUS CENTERED ON ITEMS RELATED TO THE SYNAGOGUE AND PRAYERS, FESTIVALS, AND HOME RITUALS. MATERIALS AND STYLES FOR THE SAME FUNCTION VARIED AMONG THE DISPERSED JEWISH COMMUNITIES, LENDING A RICH TEXTURE TO THE OVERARCHING JEWISH CIVILIZATION.   Esther scroll and case. Scroll: Baghdad, Iraq, 19th century. Pen and ink, tempera on parchment, 103 1240 cm. Case: Germany, 19th century. Silver, etched, engraved, pierced and cast, partly gilt, 190 cm 32 cm. Esther scroll and case. Scroll: Baghdad, Iraq, 19th century. Pen and ink, tempera on parchment, 103 × 1240 cm. Case: Germany, 19th century. Silver, etched, engraved, pierced and cast, partly gilt, 190 cm × 32 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Avi Ganor.     Tevah (prayer stand) for Torah reading. A bench can be drawn out for little boys to stand on while reciting the Targum in Aramaic. Sana, Yemen, 18th century. Wood, carved, painted, and lacquered. 100 34 30 cm. for Torah reading. A bench can be drawn out for little boys to stand on while reciting the Targum in Aramaic. Sana, Yemen, 18th century. Wood, carved, painted, and lacquered. 100 34 30 cm.") Tevah (prayer stand) for Torah reading. A bench can be drawn out for little boys to stand on while reciting the Targum in Aramaic. San'a, Yemen, 18th century. Wood, carved, painted, and lacquered. 100 × 34 × 30 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by David Harris.     Torah binders, Turkey, 19th20th century. Brocade, silk, linen, satin. Sephardi Torah binders often included the name of the embroiderer. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Nahum Slapak. Torah binders, Turkey, 19th–20th century. Brocade, silk, linen, satin. Sephardi Torah binders often included the name of the embroiderer. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Nahum Slapak.     Ornate, multi-colored Havdalah candles, Bohemia, 20th century. State Jewish Museum of Prague. Ornate, multi-colored Havdalah candles, Bohemia, 20th century. State Jewish Museum of Prague.     Spice box and Havdalah cup, Poland, early 19th century. Silver, filigree, repouss and engraved, partly gilt. H 310 cm; W 70 cm. Spice box and Havdalah cup, Poland, early 19th century. Silver, filigree, repoussé and engraved, partly gilt. H 310 cm; W 70 cm. The Stieglitz Collection was donated to the Israel Museum with the contribution of Erica and Ludwig Jesselson, New York, through the American Friends of the Israel Museum. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Avi Ganor.     Candle Holder for Havdalah, Frankfurt, Germany, first half 18th century. Silver. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Candle Holder for Havdalah, Frankfurt, Germany, first half 18th century. Silver. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.     Mezuzah cases (from left to right)::") Mezuzah cases (from left to right): Germany 19th century; silver, repoussé, engraved and pierced; Central Europe, 19th century, silver, engraved; Slovakia; 19th century, carved wood; Germany, early 19th century, carved wood; Bombay, India, 19th century, brass, cast; United States, 20th century, pierced (by Ludwig Wolpert). Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by David Harris.   Half Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA SECOND EDITION VOLUME 16 PES–QU FRED SKOLNIK, Editor in Chief MICHAEL BERENBAUM, Executive Editor Copyright Page copyright page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning Gordon Macomber, President Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher Jay Flynn, Publisher Hélène Potter, Publishing Director Keter Publishing House Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director Complete staff listings appear in Volume 1 ©2007 Keter Publishing House Ltd. Gale, is a part of The Cengage Learning Inc. Cengage, Burst Logo and Macmillan Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact Macmillan Reference USA An imprint of Gale 27500 Drake Rd. 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While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Encyclopaedia Judaica / Fred Skolnik, editor-in-chief; Michael Berenbaum, executive editor. — 2nd ed. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: v.1. Aa-Alp. ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865930-9 (vol. 2 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865931-7 (vol. 3 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865932-5 (vol. 4 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865933-3 (vol. 5 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865934-1 (vol. 6 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865935-X (vol. 7 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865936-8 (vol. 8 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865937-6 (vol. 9 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865938-4 (vol. 10 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865939-2 (vol. 11 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865940-6 (vol. 12 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865941-4 (vol. 13 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865942-2 (vol. 14 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865943-0 (vol. 15: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865944-9 (vol. 16: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865945-7 (vol. 17: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865946-5 (vol. 18: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865949-X (vol. 21: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 1\. Jews — Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- DS102.8.E496 2007 909′.04924 — dc22      2006020426 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 978-0-02-865929-9 (vol. 1) 978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 978-0-02-865931-2 (vol. 3) 978-0-02-865932-9 (vol. 4) 978-0-02-865933-6 (vol. 5) 978-0-02-865934-3 (vol. 6) 978-0-02-865935-0 (vol. 7) 978-0-02-865936-7 (vol. 8) 978-0-02-865937-4 (vol. 9) 978-0-02-865938-1 (vol. 10) 978-0-02-865939-8 (vol. 11) 978-0-02-865940-4 (vol. 12) 978-0-02-865941-1 (vol. 13) 978-0-02-865942-8 (vol. 14) 978-0-02-865943-5 (vol. 15) 978-0-02-865944-2 (vol. 16) 978-0-02-865945-9 (vol. 17) 978-0-02-865946-6 (vol. 18) 978-0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19) 978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 978-0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22) This title is also available as an e-book ISBN-10: 0-02-866097-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-866097-4 Contact your Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Entries PES–QU 5 • Abbreviations GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS 779 ABBREVIATIONS USED IN RABBINICAL LITERATURE 780 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS 786 • Transliteration Rules 799 Glossary 802 PESAḤIM PESAḤIM (Heb. פְּסָחִים; "paschal lambs"), third tractate in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and two Talmuds, of the order Mo'ed. Pesaḥim deals, in ten chapters, with the laws concerning the passover festival. Pesaḥ refers primarily to the paschal sacrifice, but was applied also to the festival itself. This tractate deals with both subjects, the sacrificial service (chaps. 5–9), leavened and unleavened bread (chaps. 1–4), and the seder (chap. 10). In geonic times the tractate was still divided correspondingly into two parts called Pesaḥ Rishon and Pesaḥ Sheni. The two parts were afterwards combined and given the name Pesaḥim (in the plural). In the Munich manuscript, the tenth chapter appears as the fourth, so that the "practical" chapters follow one another consecutively. There is clear evidence that the two parts of this tractate were not redacted in the same school, and there are definite differences between them. They contain conflicting topics and even those which are similar differ in details and even halakhically. The redaction of the tractate Pesaḥim took place relatively later than that of the other tractates and its Talmud already utilized the edited Talmud of many other tractates. The mishnayot of the second part are very old and refer to events from the time of the Second Temple and the early authorities. The Mishnah of the first part, though it is of later redaction, contains halakhot which were a subject of dispute between the latest of the zugot and the first of the tannaim, as can be proved from the parallel passages. The following are the contents of the chapters. Chapter 1 deals with the "search" for leaven (bedikat ḥameẓ) and its removal. Chapter 2 continues the subject and then goes on to discuss certain aspects of the making of the matzah and questions relating to maror and ḥaroset . Chapter 3 opens with a list of various foods containing ḥameẓ (e.g., beer made from barley), then reverts again to problems of the search for leaven and its removal, especially in the event of the eve of Passover falling on a Sabbath. Chapter 4 opens with the ruling that abstention from work on the eve of Passover depends on local customs. It then lists various halakhot which depend on local customs. Chapter 5 is mainly concerned with determining the time for slaughtering the paschal lamb and other aspects of the sacrificial service. Chapter 6 deals with the sacrificial arrangement when the festival falls on a Sabbath, and with related problems. Chapter 7 deals with the roasting of the paschal lamb, and discusses problems touching on ritual impurity affecting the persons participating in the sacrifices. Chapter 8 considers the question of a person slaughtering the paschal lamb on behalf of another person, and the qualifications of the persons involved. Chapter 9 touches first on the question of Second Passover (cf. Num. 9:10–11), but then discusses a variety of other problems, such as the interchange of a paschal lamb. Chapter 10 considers the arrangement of the seder night. In the Tosefta, this tractate is also divided into ten chapters. An aggadic point of particular interest is how King Agrippa took the census of the people assembled in Jerusalem   on the occasion of a Passover pilgrimage (4:3; also 63b). There is Gemara in the Palestinian and Babylonian Talmuds. The Gemara of the Babylonian Talmud contains a considerable amount of aggadah. The following are worthy of note: the insistence on refined language (3b); expressions of extreme antagonism between scholars and ignoramuses (49a–b); arrogance and anger make a scholar lose wisdom and a prophet his prophecy (66b); there is an advantage in the existence of a Diaspora, insofar as it makes a concentrated attack on Israel's existence impossible (87b, also 118b on the causes of Diaspora); and finally mention should be made of the story of the appointment of Hillel as nasi (66a). The English translation in the Soncino Talmud is by H. Friedman (1938). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Epstein; Tanna'im, 323–36; Ḥ. Albeck, Shishah Sidrei Mishnah, 2 (1958), 137–42. (Arnost Zvi Ehrman)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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